Update: 7th February 2008

The Keys of Atlantis

A Study of Ancient Unified Numerical and Metrological Systems

by Peter Wakefield Sault

Copyright © Peter Wakefield Sault 1973-2008
All rights reserved worldwide

The Keys of Atlantis [4S]

Précis of Chapter 4.

An Introduction to Gematria


1. Arithmetic
2. Gematria
3. Geometry
4. Myths and Legends
5. Ancient Science


1. Earth and Moon Juxtaposed
2. Regular 2D Maps of A Tetrahedon


1. Full Greek Alphabet Showing Numerical Values
2. Aliquot Parts of 3,168

The Keys of Atlantis [4S]

4S-1. Arithmetic

The arithmetic process of interest to us is Summation of Aliquot Parts, the result of which shall be represented here by S (sigma). An aliquot part is a whole divisor of a whole number - e.g. 5 is an aliquot part of 10, as is unity. This calculation is no more susceptible to algebraic solution now than it ever was. Not only that but it is a one-way process; one can derive S from the parts but not the parts from S. A table showing what numbers, within a specified range, any given number is S of can be generated by taking S for the natural sequence of numbers within the specified range and by then sorting the results into S order. A process for which electronic computers were designed and made.

Pythagorean neophytes had to learn to perform this process by pure mentation, as an exercise. The Pythagorean Brotherhood was a guild of professional calculators who kept their algorithms secret by performing their duties without the aid of writing. Summing of aliquot parts gives rise to two species of natural number known as perfect and amicable. A perfect number is one which is equal to its own S. An amicable number is one of a pair of numbers each of which is equal to the S of the other. These are well known; the first perfect number is 6 because it is the sum of 1, 2 and 3. Six is called doubly-perfect because it is also the product of its parts. The next three perfect numbers in sequence are 28, 496 and 8128. Such numbers are very rare, the 18th taking 1937 digits to write in denary notation. Amicable pairs are equally rare, the first two being {220; 284} and {1210; 1184}.

The Keys of Atlantis [4S]

4S-2. Gematria

The ancient Hellenic alphabet (with which the Christian Gospels were first written down) served two purposes. One, the obvious, was as a set of phonetic symbols for the recording of speech. The other was the recording of numbers. Numbers per se were usually distinguished from words by the placement of a line above or below (or both, as the Romans did with their numbers) the respective group of letters. The letters of the Hellenic alphabet, of which there were originally 27, were divided into 3 groups of 9. The first group was assigned the values 1 through 9 in units, the second 10 through 90 in tens and the third 100 through 900 in hundreds. By 400 B.C. the letters digamma (6), koppa (90) and sampi (900) had fallen out of use. Whatever letters added up to the number to be recorded were written down together in no particular order as this was not a place-value notation.

Although the correct Greek word for the system is isopsephia, it is more widely known as gematria, a word derived from the Greek geometria (geometry, literally land-measurement) and which modern philologists have traced to Hebrew cabalistic borrowing.

Table 4-1. Full Greek Alphabet Showing Numerical Values

It is hardly surprising that people would use this system to invent names possessing specific values of particular significance to them. Thus we find that both the architect and the mason of the Parthenon of Athens, Iktinos and Kallikrates, had masonic names.

IKTINOS (Iktinos) = 10 + 20 + 300 + 10 + 50 + 70 + 200 = 660 (= 3 × 4 × 5 × 11)

KALLIKRATHS (Kallikrates) = 20 + 1 + 30 + 30 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 1 + 300 + 8 + 200 = 720 (= 8 × 9 × 10 = 6!)

These numbers are not arbitrary but occur in the ancient systems of measure or are otherwise aeonian. For examples, 660 is the number of feet in a furlong and 720 is the factorial of 6.

The diameter of Earth across the 30th parallels is 7,920 English (long) miles and that number contains both 660 (Iktinos) and 720 (Kallikrates) as factors.

7,920 = 12 × 660 = 11 × 720

Let us look at a more familiar name:-

KURIOS IHSOUS CRISTOS (Kurios Iesous Khristos) = 3,168

“...you shall call him Jesus.” - Matthew (quoting an angel of the Lord speaking to Joseph)
“...you shall call him Jesus.” - Luke (quoting the archangel Gabriel speaking to Mary)

The title Kurios is commonly translated into English as Lord. It is, however, reserved solely for the Christ and Lord of the Universe is what it truly means. It is related to the Sanskrit word guru, meaning spiritual mentor. Khristos means Anointed.

The Keys of Atlantis [4S]

4S-3. Geometry

“...I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the world.” - Apokalypse (Revelations) of John the Divine

The perimeter of a square whose sides are 7,920 miles long (i.e. the square around Earth) is:-

4 × 7,920 = 31,680 English miles

The diameter of Moon is 2,160 (= 6 × 6 × 6 × 10) English miles, and the length of the perimeter of the square around it is:-

4 × 2,160 = 8,640 English miles

PUFAGORAS (Pythagoras) = 864

Pythagoras was known as The Master of The Moon.

Figure 4-1. Earth and Moon Juxtaposed

Diameter of Earth (across the 30th parallels) = 7,920 miles.
Diameter of Moon (an almost perfect sphere) = 2,160 miles.
Combined diameters (the largest circle in the drawing, Earth-Moon) = 7,920 + 2,160 = 10,080 miles.
1 week = 10,080 minutes. We appear to have found seven days which in the world were made. (Read the preceding sentence very carefully.)

Let p (pi) = 22/7 (the first Egyptian approximation, more handy than precise and more sacred than practical). The circumference of the largest circle is then 10,080 × 22/7 = 31,680 miles = Length of perimeter of square around Earth.

The radius of the large circle is the same number of miles as there are concentric rings in the circular city-state of Plato's Republic; 5,040. It is also the product of all the natural numbers from 1 to 7, or ‘7 factorial’ (usually written 7!). As such it is seven times the value of the name Kallikrates.

The Keys of Atlantis [4S]

4S-4. Myths and Legends

“Here is wisdom. Let the thinking man count the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man. And the number is 666.” - Apokalypse (Revelations) of John the Divine

Table 4-2. Aliquot Parts of 3,168

Let us sum the aliquot parts of the number 3,168:-

S(3,168) = 6,660

Identification of the Christ with the ‘Beast of Revelations’ is generally considered supreme blasphemy by followers of the Christian religion. We are, however, still left with the plainly self-evident fact that the number of the beast can be extracted from the principal number of the Christ, whose personal name was chosen by God. Some may say it was “...put there by Satan the devil, to deceive us.”; just like dinosaur bones. However, the association which undeniably exists here is certainly not one of identification.

As indicated above, the arithmetic process (Summation of Aliquot Parts) whereby the number of the beast is seen in the number of the Christ is unidirectional. The only possible significance of this fact in the mythical world is that the Christ knows the beast and has power over it (contains it), but not vice versa.

We must not, however, allow mythical reality to sidetrack us from our quest for Truth. On the contrary, we must see these sacred myths for what they truly are - maps of reality wrapped and bound up in sacred imagery and taboos designed to ensure their survival through the ravages of eons of primitive superstitious existence. Designed moreover to be recognized at such time as new maps of the same reality emerge, in this case from the researches of natural philosophers.

The Keys of Atlantis [4S]

4S-5. Ancient Science

IHSOUS (Jesus) = 888

H ZWH EIMI ("I am the Life") = 888

Each atom of Carbon-12 comprises 6 neutrons, 6 protons and 6 electrons.

Each atom of Oxygen-16 comprises 8 neutrons, 8 protons and 8 electrons.

The geometry of carbon-12 is such that its 4 valence points are distributed around each atom at the vertices of a tetrahedron. There are just two regular 2-dimensional maps of a tetrahedron; a triangle and a square with crossed diagonals:-

Figure 4-2. Regular 2D Maps of A Tetrahedron

The energy needed for every step we take is provided by the oxidation of carbon, resulting in the formation of carbon dioxide (CO2). Oxygen molecules (O2) get ‘nailed’ to carbon ‘crosses’ on which they ‘die’ (i.e. the reaction releases energy) in order that we might live. This is the essential nature of life on Earth; a water-moderated macro-reaction between Earth's carbon- and oxygen-bodies. Oxygen is liberated from carbon by solar energy through the medium of chlorophyll, produced by green plants. In this manner the oxygen ‘rises from the dead’ and is ‘born again’.

Thus we can see John's riddle as a biochemical description of life on Earth.

The Keys of Atlantis

Copyright © Peter Wakefield Sault 1973-2008
All rights reserved worldwide

Images of Earth from above